Solar Air Conditioning

The WATER FIRED SINGLE-EFFECT chillers or chiller-heaters have cooling capacities of 10, 20 and 30 tons of refrigeration and produce chilled water for cooling or hot water for heating in many different  air conditioning applications.  The absorption cycle is energize by hot water at 158°F to 203°F. NOTE the low water temperature.  WASTE HEAT in the form of HOT WATER is the most environmentally friendly method of firing the chillers.  There are a number of industrial and agricultural processes producing waste heat, which are suitable to this purpose; Standby Power Plants Gas Pump engines can be converted to CHP units producing HEAT and POWER. Co-generation Systems, Solar Energy or rejected heat from other heat sources.


THE CONDENSER or waste heat rejection loop is water-cooled. It is in this process that the true efficiency of the LiBr chiller can be achieved.  Through the use of a little ingenuity and imagination COP efficiencies of less than one can be maintained.  By replacing a conventional cooling tower major amounts of energy savings are achieved. Waste heat leaves the condenser a about 95 F. Cooling water inters at approximately 85 F. By utilizing a heat exchanger or loop in the cool water interring an industrial process, The rejected heat can preheat it. One example is CAR WASHES. Large amounts of cold water enter as make up water. This water would otherwise be heated with new energy instead of RECYCLED ENERGY. Other examples include; Irrigation water, Breweries, Cooling Ponds and Wells. All of these methods replace energy wasting COOLING TOWERS.


 Absorption Principle

The absorption chiller or chiller-heater uses a solution of lithium bromide
and water, under a vacuum, as the working fluid. This totally eliminates the need for conventional
refrigerants or freon.  Water is the refrigerant and Lithium
Bromide, a nontoxic salt, is the absorbent.  LITHIUM BROMIDE, liberated by heat from the water solution, produces a refrigerating effect in he evaporator when cooling water is circulated through the condenser and absorber.




When hot water interring the inlet  exceeds 154.4°F, the solution pump forces dilute lithium bromide solution into the generator.  The solution boils vigorously under a vacuum and droplets of concentrated solution are carried with water vapor to the primary separator.  After separation, water vapor flows to the condenser and concentrated solution is pre-cooled in the heat exchanger before flowing to the absorber.




In the condenser, water vapor is condensed on the surface of the cooling coil. The cooling water removes the remaining heat. The heat in the cooling water is rejected to the COOLING WATER SYSTEM. The LiBr and water accumulates in the condenser and then passes through an orifice into the evaporator.




Due to the influence of the absorber the LiBr liquid is exposed to a much lower vacuum than in the condenser.  As the refrigerant liquid flows over the surface of the evaporator coil it boils and removes heat, equivalent to the latent heat of therefrigerant, from the chilled water circuit.  The chilled water loop is cooled to 44.6°F and the refrigerant vapor is attracted to the absorber.




A deep vacuum in the absorber is maintained by the affinity of the concentrated solution

from the generator with the refrigerant vapor formed in the evaporator.  The refrigerant

vapor is absorbed by the concentrated lithium bromide solution flowing across the surface of the absorber coil.  Heat of condensation and dilution are removed by the cooling water and rejected to a cooling Loop.  The resulting dilute solution is preheated in a heat exchanger before returning to the generator where the cycle is repeated.






When the heat medium inlet temperature exceeds 154.4°F, the solution pump forces dilute Lithium Bromide solution into the generator.  The solution boils vigorously under a vacuum to generate refrigerant vapor and droplets of concentrated solution.  Since the changeover valve is open during heating operation, the mixture of refrigerant vapor and concentrated solution flows directly into the evaporator. Some refrigerant vapor flows through the condenser before reaching the evaporator.




Hot refrigerant vapor condenses on the surface of the evaporator coil and heat, equivalent to the latent heat of the refrigerant, is transferred to the hot water circuit.  The recirculating water is heated to 131°F.  Refrigerant liquid mixes with concentrated lithium bromide solution and the resulting dilute solution returns to the generator where the cycle is repeated.

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